I was disappointed with the pressure of a tub and shower that were plumbed with 1/2 supply lines (2nd floor). Could be low pressure from the street, but I want to replace with 5/8. Plus, I'd like to have 2 back to back showers, one inside and one outside. So, I had intended to bring a 1 supply to both, then branch up to valves and shower head with 5/8. Finally, I thought pressure from the street was typically 55 to 70 psi and I am concerned if pvc can take that.Any thoughts? 

Recent Review: The service call went well. Fixed a simple problem with my furnace and then during the A/C check up, they found that the smaller compressor needed replacement. It's two years old so thought it was under warranty and determined that it was, so they took care of that for me. Each time I've used these guys, I've been pleased with their service, professionalism and punctuality. Plus the call I get from the office saying the service person is on the way to my home. That way I don't have to take half a day off work to meet the service person.
An alternative to packaged systems is the use of separate indoor and outdoor coils in split systems. Split systems are preferred and widely used worldwide except in North America. In North America, split systems are most often seen in residential applications, but they are gaining popularity in small commercial buildings. The split systems are a great choice for small buildings where ductwork is not feasible or where the space conditioning efficiency is of prime concern [21]. The benefits of ductless air conditioning systems include easy installation, no ductwork, greater zonal control, flexibility of control and quiet operation [22]. In space conditioning, the duct losses can account for 30% of energy consumption [23]. The use of minisplit can result in energy savings in space conditioning as there are no losses associated with ducting.
As a locally owned and operated HVAC contractor we are not owned by anyone else but ourselves. This allows us to keep our prices reasonable. It also allows us to keep our responses personal and our service reliable because we directly answer to each of our customers. If we send one of our technicians to service a call anywhere in Southern Maryland, we recognize that their customer service is a direct reflection on our business name – so we want your satisfaction to be 100%.
Ground source, or geothermal, heat pumps are similar to ordinary heat pumps, but instead of transferring heat to or from outside air, they rely on the stable, even temperature of the earth to provide heating and air conditioning. Many regions experience seasonal temperature extremes, which would require large-capacity heating and cooling equipment to heat or cool buildings. For example, a conventional heat pump system used to heat a building in Montana's −70 °F (−57 °C) low temperature or cool a building in the highest temperature ever recorded in the US—134 °F (57 °C) in Death Valley, California, in 1913 would require a large amount of energy due to the extreme difference between inside and outside air temperatures. A few feet below the earth's surface, however, the ground remains at a relatively constant temperature. Utilizing this large source of relatively moderate temperature earth, a heating or cooling system's capacity can often be significantly reduced. Although ground temperatures vary according to latitude, at 6 feet (1.8 m) underground, temperatures generally only range from 45 to 75 °F (7 to 24 °C).
Evaporative coolers tend to feel as if they are not working during times of high humidity, when there is not much dry air with which the coolers can work to make the air as cool as possible for dwelling occupants. Unlike other types of air conditioners, evaporative coolers rely on the outside air to be channeled through cooler pads that cool the air before it reaches the inside of a house through its air duct system; this cooled outside air must be allowed to push the warmer air within the house out through an exhaust opening such as an open door or window.[28] These coolers cost less and are mechanically simple to understand and maintain.
If the condenser coils are clogged, the compressor can overheat and shut down. You’ll experience intermittent periods of minimal cooling, followed by no cooling. Even if you’re “sure” the condenser coils are clean, clean them again. Turn off the power. Flip the air conditioning service and furnace circuit breakers in your main electrical panel to the “Off” position. Next, turn off the power switch right at the furnace or air handler. Then yank the disconnect block (Photo 1) and clean the condenser coils (Photo 2). If the air conditioning service still doesn’t work properly after you’ve cleaned the condenser coils, installed a new filter and opened all the supply vents, proceed with the following repairs.
In the most general sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the condition of air (heating, (de-) humidification, cooling, cleaning, ventilation, or air movement). In common usage, though, "air conditioning" refers to systems which cool air. In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as HVAC.[3]
Even with the best air conditioning repair service Phoenix can offer, an AC unit that has reached the end of its shelf life must be replaced. If you are ready to upgrade or replace that aging system, call us now for a free estimate, or check out our AC Unit Replacement section. In addition to offering our own Precision Line with the best warranty available in the industry, we also partner with industry leaders to offer the highest quality equipment at the best possible price, and we personally stand behind all of our new equipment installations.
Though Harrison had commercial success establishing a second ice company back in Sydney in 1860, he later entered the debate over how to compete against the American advantage of ice-refrigerated beef sales to the United Kingdom. He wrote: "Fresh meat frozen and packed as if for a voyage, so that the refrigerating process may be continued for any required period", and in 1873 prepared the sailing ship Norfolk for an experimental beef shipment to the United Kingdom. His choice of a cold room system instead of installing a refrigeration system upon the ship itself proved disastrous when the ice was consumed faster than expected.[citation needed]
In the United States, HVAC engineers generally are members of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), EPA Universal CFC certified (for installation and service of CFC HVAC devices), or locally engineer certified such as a Special to Chief Boilers License issued by the state or, in some jurisdictions, the city. ASHRAE is an international technical society for all individuals and organizations interested in HVAC. The Society, organized into regions, chapters, and student branches, allows exchange of HVAC knowledge and experiences for the benefit of the field's practitioners and the public. ASHRAE provides many opportunities to participate in the development of new knowledge via, for example, research and its many technical committees. These committees typically meet twice per year at the ASHRAE Annual and Winter Meetings. A popular product show, the AHR Expo, is held in conjunction with each winter meeting. The Society has approximately 50,000 members and has headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.
BGE HOME HVAC repair technicians are thoroughly trained and certified to work on all major brands of heating and air conditioning equipment. When your system breaks down and needs a heating and air conditioning repair, you want to call someone you can trust. Need air conditioning service in the middle of the night? Emergency heating and cooling HVAC service is available 24 hours a day by calling 888-243-4663.
No one wants to be stuck in the dead of summer with a broken air conditioner, or in the cold of winter with a broken furnace or boiler. That’s why we’re available any time of day to make your emergency heating and air conditioning repair and get your system up and running as quickly as possible. We’ll show up on time, in uniform and ready to make your HVAC repair right the first time.
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) was the most common blend used in automobiles in the U.S. until 1994, when most designs changed to R-134A due to the ozone-depleting potential of R-12. R-11 and R-12 are no longer manufactured in the U.S. for this type of application, so the only source for air-conditioning repair purposes is the cleaned and purified gas recovered from other air conditioner systems. Several non-ozone-depleting refrigerants have been developed as alternatives, including R-410A. It was first commercially used by Carrier Corp. under the brand name Puron.[citation needed]

Most central air conditioners are connected to a home's forced-air distribution system. Thus, the same motor, blower, and ductwork used for heating are used to distribute cool air from the air conditioning system. When a central air conditioner is operating, hot air inside the house flows to the furnace through the return-air duct. The hot air is moved by the blower across the cooled evaporator coil in the plenum and is then delivered through ducts to cool the house. When the air conditioner works but the house doesn't cool, the problem is probably in the distribution system.


Recent Review: Metro Service was amazing. They came out on Saturday and secured the gas to a failing furnace to insure our safety. They came out on Monday and had the new furnace installed and operating within less than 4 hours. Polite, professional, meticulous and 35% lower than their competitors. I will be using them for all of my HVAC needs in the future.
5) Your air conditioner is short cycling. It is perfectly normal for your air conditioner to cycle on and off to maintain a set temperature throughout your home. However, if you notice that it is turning on and off more frequently than usual and the outside temperature is not particularly warmer than normal, it is possible that your unit is malfunctioning. Short cycling puts extra stress on your air conditioner, and can cause it to fail if not handled quickly. 
If you’re looking to maintain, replace, or repair your home or business’s air conditioning system, “Make the Precision Decision”™ and give us a call. We are available 24/7 for all your emergency service needs. Our service area includes Litchfield Park, Mesa, Avondale, Peoria, Phoenix, Chandler, Scottsdale, Sun Lakes, Gilbert, Surprise, Glendale, Tempe, Goodyear and surrounding areas.
Air changes per hour Bake-out Building envelope Convection Dilution Domestic energy consumption Enthalpy Fluid dynamics Gas compressor Heat pump and refrigeration cycle Heat transfer Humidity Infiltration Latent heat Noise control Outgassing Particulates Psychrometrics Sensible heat Stack effect Thermal comfort Thermal destratification Thermal mass Thermodynamics Vapour pressure of water
The most recognized standards for HVAC design are based on ASHRAE data. The most general of four volumes of the ASHRAE Handbook is Fundamentals; it includes heating and cooling calculations. Each volume of the ASHRAE Handbook is updated every four years. The design professional must consult ASHRAE data for the standards of design and care as the typical building codes provide little to no information on HVAC design practices; codes such as the UMC and IMC do include much detail on installation requirements, however. Other useful reference materials include items from SMACNA, ACGIH, and technical trade journals.
Replacing a capacitor is easy. Just take a photo of the wires before disconnecting anything (you may need a reference later on). Then discharge the stored energy in the old capacitor (Photo 4). Use needle-nose pliers to pluck one wire at a time from the old capacitor and snap it onto the corresponding tab of the new capacitor. The female crimp connectors should snap tightly onto the capacitor tabs. Wiggle each connector to see if it’s tight. If it’s not, remove the connector and bend the rounded edges of it so it makes a tighter fit on the tab. When you’ve swapped all the wires, secure the new capacitor (Photo 5).
In addition to the information below, see these two articles for the general care and maintenance of your air conditioner: Preparing Your Air Conditioner for Summer and How to Replace Furnace & AC Filters. Most noteworthy, you should replace the filters at least twice a year, before the heating and cooling seasons. For information on furnace problems, please see Furnace Not Working.
Most modern air-conditioning systems feature a dehumidification cycle during which the compressor runs while the fan is slowed as much as possible[citation needed] to reduce the evaporator temperature and therefore condense more water. When the temperature falls below a threshold, both the fan and compressor are shut off to mitigate further temperature drops;[clarification needed] this prevents moisture on the evaporator from being blown back into the room.[citation needed] When the temperature rises again,[clarification needed] the compressor restarts and the fan returns to low speed.
Allow our experts to help with any of your heating and cooling needs or questions. Our wide array of expertise and background will benefit you and your home, whether you are considering a replacement system or evaluating your whole system to check for areas of improvement. We can help you reach your optimum indoor comfort. Give us a ring at 866-397-3787 or request an appointment online.
It’s important to keep your furnace receives regular maintenance to ensure that it’s working properly and efficiently. Routine maintenance can also extend the life of your heating system by several years. Ask about our annual maintenance agreements that cover your plumbing, heating, and cooling systems and save you money. A furnace that has been neglected may be working too hard, which can result in inconsistent air temperatures in your Minneapolis area home. Learn more about the importance of routine maintenance on your HVAC system.
Many heating and air conditioning companies are only interested in selling you equipment and service agreements. We’re interested in doing what’s best for our customers and in building and maintaining life-long relationships. With more than 55 years of service to the Tulsa, Oklahoma area, you can rest assured that our reputation and longevity speak for itself. We are easy to do business with!

The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers is a body that covers the essential Service (systems architecture) that allow buildings to operate. It includes the electrotechnical, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, refrigeration and plumbing industries. To train as a building services engineer, the academic requirements are GCSEs (A-C) / Standard Grades (1-3) in Maths and Science, which are important in measurements, planning and theory. Employers will often want a degree in a branch of engineering, such as building environment engineering, electrical engineering or mechanical engineering. To become a full member of CIBSE, and so also to be registered by the Engineering Council UK as a chartered engineer, engineers must also attain an Honours Degree and a master's degree in a relevant engineering subject.


This is probably the most common question we hear. To give an accurate price, we need to get a safety certified technician out to your home in a fully stocked truck to take a look at your particular situation. Our technician will give you a precise price with your options BEFORE any work begins. Each of our technicians are well trained, experienced, drug tested and background checked so that you can rest easy knowing your services will be performed in a timely and professional manner. If you need help paying for your services, we even offer financing with approved credit through Wells Fargo. Click here to learn more about our financing services.
SEER is related to the coefficient of performance (COP) commonly used in thermodynamics and also to the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). The EER is the efficiency rating for the equipment at a particular pair of external and internal temperatures, while SEER is calculated over a whole range of external temperatures (i.e., the temperature distribution for the geographical location of the SEER test). SEER is unusual in that it is composed of an Imperial unit divided by an SI unit. The COP is a ratio with the same metric units of energy (joules) in both the numerator and denominator. They cancel out, leaving a dimensionless quantity. Formulas for the approximate conversion between SEER and EER or COP are available.[34]
If your AC system is in need of replacement, the national average air conditioner installation costs range from $2,930 to $3,670. Costs can vary greatly depending on whether you are replacing a wall or window unit or a central air system. A central air system is connected to ductwork that runs throughout your house and pumps cooled air into your various rooms via vents and registers. A central air conditioning system is far more costly than wall or window units. Selecting a central AC system that has a high seasonal energy-efficiency ratio (SEER) will likely lower both your carbon footprint and your utility bill. The type of AC system you select, where you live in the country, and the regional costs of HVAC work, duct removal and replacement, and ductwork repairs that are needed are some of the main factors that affect the cost of new air conditioner installation. Here are some examples of average costs for installing forced-air systems.
Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant, Carrier's invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity. Carrier used his knowledge of the heating of objects with steam and reversed the process. Instead of sending air through hot coils, he sent it through cold coils (filled with cold water). The air was cooled, and thereby the amount of moisture in the air could be controlled, which in turn made the humidity in the room controllable. The controlled temperature and humidity helped maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. Later, Carrier's technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace, and The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was formed to meet rising demand. Over time, air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles as well. Residential sales expanded dramatically in the 1950s.[citation needed]
This type of furnace is fueled by liquid propane gas, which is burned to push hot air through your home. A pilot light ignites the burners within a combustion chamber, which push heat into the heat exchanger and eventually through your entire home. Repairing this type of furnace can be more expensive than its electric alternative. For example here are some common propane gas repairs and their costs:
Air conditioners often use a fan to distribute the conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a car to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Electric refrigerant-based AC units range from small units that can cool a small bedroom, which can be carried by a single adult, to massive units installed on the roof of office towers that can cool an entire building. The cooling is typically achieved through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling is used. Air conditioning systems can also be made based on desiccants (chemicals which remove moisture from the air) and subterraneous pipes that can distribute the heated refrigerant to the ground for cooling.[2]

If a heat exchanger cracks or contains holes, leaks can release carbon monoxide into your home. Carbon monoxide is nearly impossible for humans to detect on their own due to its characteristics of being colorless and odorless. Because of this, it is referred to as “The Silent Killer”. Some symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting. It is extremely important to have a HVAC technician perform a furnace inspection annually to prevent problems such as carbon monoxide poisoning. UGI Heating, Cooling & Plumbing offers yearly maintenance packages and service agreements that include yearly maintenance and furnace inspections.


Our complaint-free A+ rating from the Better Business Bureau and Angie’s List Super Service Award evidences a longstanding tradition of customer satisfaction.  When you contact Kabran Air Conditioning & Heating for commercial or residential installation, upgrades, maintenance, or repair in Cocoa Beach and the surrounding Space Coast area, know that every aspect of your project will meet your highest expectation.  Bringing together top notch products, cutting-edge equipment, and the most extensively trained and experienced technicians, we deliver immediate and lasting solutions.  Trust your heating and cooling requirements to Kabran Air Conditioning & Heating and count on outstanding energy savings, reliable performance, and exceptional comfort.

When you contract with Vredevoogd Heating & Cooling Grand Rapids MI, you can count on us to make safety our top priority. Your HVAC system is, of course, a major investment and integral to the functioning of your home; however, nothing is as important as the safety of each life within your home. We carefully inspect your system to ensure that it is functioning properly in order to guard against carbon monoxide poisoning or other system emergencies. We take the greatest care when installing your HVAC system, knowing that a perfect installation is the safest installation for your home. We follow our industry’s best practices concerning safety and will happily share our know how with you when it comes to safely maintaining your system between service appointments.  If you ever suspect a problem with your HVAC system, you hear strange noises or smell unpleasant odors, for instance, you can call us night or day, 24/7, to address your heating and cooling emergency. We’ll never leave you in the lurch! We are ready to provide service ASAP to ensure the safe operation of your HVAC system.


About us: Vredevoogd Heating & Cooling has been in business since 1964. As a financially stable company known for its reliable expertise and first-rate customer care, Vredevoogd Heating & Cooling is a company you can trust. Moreover, when you do business with a stable business like Vredevoogd Heating & Cooling, you have the peace of mind of knowing that your warranties are solidly backed by a company that intends to remain in business for another 50+ years and beyond. Don’t trust your essential home systems and investment to any fly-by-night company. Our best practices ensure that we will be here to meet our customer’s HVAC needs for decades to come. Vredevoogd Heating & Cooling founder Dennis Vredevoogd set the high standards by which the company continues to pride itself for. Today, the company continues to be family owned and operated by the founder’s sons, Michael and Thomas, who are committed to maintaining the company’s high standards and complementing them with the innovative technical know-how needed to service today’s advanced HVAC systems.


Air conditioner inverter Air door Air filter Air handler Air ionizer Air-mixing plenum Air purifier Air source heat pumps Automatic balancing valve Back boiler Barrier pipe Blast damper Boiler Centrifugal fan Ceramic heater Chiller Condensate pump Condenser Condensing boiler Convection heater Cooling tower Damper Dehumidifier Duct Economizer Electrostatic precipitator Evaporative cooler Evaporator Exhaust hood Expansion tank Fan coil unit Fan heater Fire damper Fireplace Fireplace insert Freeze stat Flue Freon Fume hood Furnace Furnace room Gas compressor Gas heater Gasoline heater Geothermal heat pump Grease duct Grille Ground-coupled heat exchanger Heat exchanger Heat pipe Heat pump Heating film Heating system High efficiency glandless circulating pump High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) High pressure cut off switch Humidifier Infrared heater Inverter compressor Kerosene heater Louver Mechanical fan Mechanical room Oil heater Packaged terminal air conditioner Plenum space Pressurisation ductwork Process duct work Radiator Radiator reflector Recuperator Refrigerant Register Reversing valve Run-around coil Scroll compressor Solar chimney Solar-assisted heat pump Space heater Smoke exhaust ductwork Thermal expansion valve Thermal wheel Thermosiphon Thermostatic radiator valve Trickle vent Trombe wall Turning vanes Ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) Whole-house fan Windcatcher Wood-burning stove
In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be heated and cooled by a single piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same hardware.
Advantages of the ductless system include smaller size and flexibility for zoning or heating and cooling individual rooms. The inside wall space required is significantly reduced. Also, the compressor and heat exchanger can be located farther away from the inside space, rather than merely on the other side of the same unit as in a PTAC or window air conditioner. Flexible exterior hoses lead from the outside unit to the interior one(s); these are often enclosed with metal to look like common drainpipes from the roof. In addition, ductless systems offer higher efficiency, reaching above 30 SEER.[39]

Poorly maintained water cooling towers can promote the growth and spread of microorganisms,[56] such as Legionella pneumophila, the infectious agent responsible for Legionnaires' disease, or thermophilic actinomycetes. As long as the cooling tower is kept clean (usually by means of a chlorine treatment), these health hazards can be avoided or reduced. Excessive air conditioning can have a negative effect on skin, causing it to dry out, and can also cause dehydration.[citation needed]

We contacted GatorAC and have been pleased through the entire process of the purchase, installation and the daily functioning of the unit. We spoke to Angie to get information about the Trane AC. She arranged for Carlos Garcia to come to the house to determine the unit that would fit our needs. We made the choice between 3 units on Thursday and the unit was installed Friday. The Installation team, Willie Shaw and Gary Barber were the best. When they left everything was done, clean and clear and working great. We would recommend GatorAC for your AC needs.
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